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2018-02-20

中國推一帶一路 德外長:民主與獨裁之爭 自由 20180219

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顯然已經憂心忡忡:對中國,也對川普。但他仍使用國國安戰略報告的用語。



中國推一帶一路 德外長:民主與獨裁之爭    自由 20180219
聚焦全球安全議題的第五十四屆慕尼黑安全會議(MSC),十六日在德國南部的慕尼黑揭幕。德國外交部長嘉布瑞爾(Sigmar Gabriel)十七日在演說中指出,中國的「一帶一路」計畫是要建立一個全面替代體系,讓中國在世界上留下印記,但這體系不同於西方是以自由、民主與人權為價值觀,自由世界的秩序正在崩解,民主與獨裁的制度之爭再度浮上檯面,西方國家應提出對策

嘉布瑞爾籲歐洲團結
嘉布瑞爾批評,德國在二次世界大戰後學習美國的民主制度、多元文化、自由貿易理念,但川普領導下的美國已難以辨識,「不知道該相信實際上的行動、說的話,還是推特」,德國為此感到不安;而中國是目前唯一擁有、且堅定實現全球性地緣政治目標的國家,世界權力將隨中國崛起而改變。面對中國的銀彈攻勢,他呼籲歐洲必須以內部凝聚、發展共同外交利益、尋求共利工具等方式團結一致。他也希望美國支持歐盟,美歐若不合作,將被中國和俄羅斯的「棒子和紅蘿蔔」策略所分化。

中國獨立學者章立凡在接受「德國之聲」訪問時也指出,習近平時代的中國外交政策採取擴張態勢,企圖成為世界領袖、全球化領導者,此乃毛澤東時代「輸出革命」的翻版,只不過是將輸出革命變成輸出資本,將中共的價值觀打包在中國文化裡一起輸出;透過「一帶一路」控制許多國家的經濟資源,將國內通膨和經濟問題向外轉移,讓全世界來承擔,西方的價值觀和民主制度未來都可能受到中國崛起的影響或衝擊。

學者:中國輸出「革命」
本屆MSC的焦點集中於全球軍備、中東危機、北韓核武等議題,中國的「一帶一路」、美國閉關自守、俄羅斯的地緣政治野心等也都受到高度關注。MSC主席伊辛格也警告,中國近年大舉投資東歐,歐洲面臨被分化的危險,歐洲若不團結恐將遭中國忽視和分化。此外,美國和俄羅斯的不信任程度已「不能再糟」,開戰風險乃冷戰結束以來最高,雙方在敘利亞和北韓問題上誤判的可能性大增。

出席本屆會議者包括英國首相梅伊、以色列總理納坦雅胡、烏克蘭總統波洛申科等國家領袖,以及美國國防部長馬提斯、北約組織(NATO)秘書長史托騰柏格等政要。成立於一九六三年的慕尼黑安全會議,是議論國際安全政策的年度會議,每年二月召開,每年都有來自逾七十個國家近五百名國家、政府和國際組織首腦、部長級高官、國會議員及武裝部隊公民團體的高層代表參加,成為國際安全政策決策者交換意見的最重要論壇。

Germany's Gabriel: 'We need a European moment'    DW 20180217
German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel has called for European unity in the face of growing global tensions.   He also spoke of German "perturbation" at Washington's foreign policy at the Munich Security Conference.

In what may be his last major speech as German foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel on Saturday told delegates to the Munich Security Conference that the European Union needed to develop a joint foreign policy agenda to counter growing assertiveness from countries such as China and Russia.

At the same time, he stressed the continued importance of US-European cooperation, saying now was not the time for "just pursuing individual national interests."

Gabriel's comments come amid widespread European concern that the US, under the leadership of President Donald Trump, is increasingly turning its back on traditional trans-Atlantic partnerships.

'We no longer recognize our America'
He said that particularly Germany, which had learnt so much from the US about democracy, multilateralism and free trade after World War II, was "perturbed" at the new course taken by Washington "because we no longer recognize our America."

"I am convinced cooperation between Europe and the US is important to maintain the architecture of freedom," he said.

Among other things, he called on Washington not to abort the nuclear deal with Iran, but instead to help devise joint new strategies to counter Iranian expansionist policies.

Investing in solidarity
On the European front, Gabriel said three things were necessary to move forward: generating internal cohesion, developing joint foreign policy interests and coming up with tools to pursue common interests.

"We need a European moment ...  We firmly believe we need cooperation instead of confrontation," he said, adding that Germany would invest in solidarity for that reason.

Gabriel also warned of the challenges posed by China's growing geopolitical assertiveness and Russian aggression, notably in Ukraine.

He said China and Russia were trying "to test and undermine" the liberal Western world order, and that for that reason he expected friends such as the US to support the EU project.

"Nobody should attempt to divide the European Union: not Russia, not China and also not the United States," he said.

'The EU a huge achievement'
In moving words, he described the EU as a huge achievement, where within one generation enemies had turned first into partners, then friends.

But he went on to say that the bloc, which was once a bid to establish internal reconciliation following two wars, now needed a common "power project" to avoid it being a "vegetarian in a world of carnivores."

Earlier, Gabriel said at talks with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov that he was in favor of gradually softening some sanctions imposed on Russia over its role in the conflict in eastern Ukraine if a ceasefire could be brought about with the help of UN peacekeepers.

Although the official stance is that all provisions of the Minsk peace accords should be implemented before any sanctions are lifted, Gabriel said this was "not realistic" unless Moscow were given some sanctions relief.

Russia has proposed bringing UN peacekeeping forces into eastern Ukraine to end violence in a conflict between pro-Moscow rebels and the Kyiv government that has killed some 10,000 people since 2014.

Gabriel is currently serving in an acting capacity as foreign minister, as Germany continues its struggle to establish a coalition government.



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