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2015-08-19

中國沒贏「抗戰」,但打贏「太平洋戰爭」

范姜提昂在〈習近平拿槍 國民黨中彈〉一文中引述:《經濟學人》並點出屬於習近平的「歷史邏輯」:打敗日本這件事,中國扮演重要角色,因此,對於亞洲秩序應如何運作,中國擁有更大發言權!

無論蔣毛都這樣看中國在「太平洋戰爭」的功勞,實際上,仍有商榷餘地。


NHK816日晚間的特別節目《終戦知られざる7日間》中提及,當天皇宣布投降後,日本軍人仍氣憤不已,聲稱戰場上沒有戰敗為何投降?

這樣認為的,除了海軍的「震洋」特攻隊(特攻隊本身就是戰敗的象徵)仍持續零星出戰之外,主要是在中國與滿洲的日軍,認為戰場上並未打敗,無意願投降。甚至在中國中部的混成旅團還有一不做二不休的想法,就地自組獨立國的提議。
富士電視台50週年大戲《不毛地帶》就描述了大本營作戰參謀瀨島龍三,為此到滿洲去勸降,而被南下的蘇聯軍隊俘虜,送到西伯利亞勞改11年。

因此,中國「抗戰」打勝日本了嗎?
答案是沒有的。
但,中國作為聯合國的一員,打勝了「太平洋戰爭」了嗎?
答案是有的。

如此而已。


Xi’s history lessonsEconomist(2015.08.15)
IN EARLY September President Xi Jinping will take the salute at a huge military parade in Beijing.  It will be his most visible assertion of authority since he came to power in 2012: his first public appearance at such a display of missiles, tanks and goose-stepping troops.  Officially the event will be all about the past, commemorating the end of the second world war in 1945 and remembering the 15m Chinese people who died in one of its bloodiest chapters: the Japanese invasion and occupation of China of 1937-45.

It will be a reminder of the bravery of China’s soldiers and their crucial role in confronting Asia’s monstrously aggressive imperial power. And rightly so: Chinese sacrifices during that hellish period deserve much wider recognition.  Between 1937, when total war erupted in China, and late 1941, when the attack on Pearl Harbor brought America into the fray, China fought the Japanese alone.  By the end of the war it had lost more people—soldiers and civilians—than any other country bar the Soviet Union.

Yet next month’s parade is not just about remembrance; it is about the future, too.  This is the first time that China is commemorating the war with a military show, rather than with solemn ceremony.  The symbolism will not be lost on its neighbours. And it will unsettle them, for in East Asia today the rising, disruptive, undemocratic power is no longer a string of islands presided over by a god-emperor.  It is the world’s most populous nation, led by a man whose vision for the future (a richer country with a stronger military arm) sounds a bit like one of Japan’s early imperial slogans.  It would be wrong to press the parallel too far: China is not about to invade its neighbours.  But there are reasons to worry about the way the Chinese Communist Party sees history—and massages it to justify its current ambitions.

History with Chinese characteristics
Under Mr Xi, the logic of history goes something like this.  China played such an important role in vanquishing Japanese imperialism that not only does it deserve belated recognition for past valour and suffering, but also a greater say in how Asia is run today.  Also, Japan is still dangerous.  Chinese schools, museums and TV programmes constantly warn that the spirit of aggression still lurks across the water. A Chinese diplomat has implied that Japan’s prime minister, Shinzo Abe, is a new Voldemort, the epitome of evil in the “Harry Potter” series. At any moment Japan could menace Asia once more, party newspapers intone. China, again, is standing up to the threat.

As our essay on the ghosts of the war that ended 70 years ago this week explains, this narrative requires exquisite contortions. For one thing, it was not the Chinese communists who bore the brunt of the fighting against Japan, but their sworn enemies, the nationalists (or Kuomintang) under Chiang Kai-shek. For another, today’s Japan is nothing like the country that slaughtered the inhabitants of Nanjing, forced Korean and Chinese women into military brothels or tested biological weapons on civilians.

Granted, Japan never repented of its war record as full-throatedly as Germany did. Even today a small but vocal group of Japanese ultra-nationalists deny their country’s war crimes, and Mr Abe, shamefully, sometimes panders to them. Yet the idea that Japan remains an aggressive power is absurd. Its soldiers have not fired a shot in anger since 1945. Its democracy is deeply entrenched; its respect for human rights profound. Most Japanese acknowledge their country’s war guilt. Successive governments have apologised, and Mr Abe is expected to do the same (seearticle). Today Japan is ageing, shrinking, largely pacifist and, because of the trauma of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, unlikely ever to possess nuclear weapons. Some threat.

The dangers of demonisation
China’s demonisation of Japan is not only unfair; it is also risky. Governments that stoke up nationalist animosity cannot always control it. So far, China’s big show of challenging Japan’s control of the Senkaku (or Diaoyu) islands has involved only sabre-rattling, not bloodshed. But there is always a danger that a miscalculation could lead to something worse.

East Asia’s old war wounds have not yet healed. The Korean peninsula remains sundered, China and Taiwan are separate, and even Japan can be said to be split, for since 1945 America has used the southern island of Okinawa as its main military stronghold in the western Pacific. The Taiwan Strait and the border between North and South Korea continue to be potential flashpoints; whether they one day turn violent depends largely on China’s behaviour, for better or worse. It is naive to assume America will always be able to keep a lid on things.

On the contrary, many Asians worry that China’s ambitions set it on a collision course with the superpower and the smaller nations that shelter under its security umbrella. When China picks fights with Japan in the East China Sea, or builds airstrips on historically disputed reefs in the South China Sea, it feeds those fears. It also risks sucking America into its territorial disputes, and raises the chances of eventual conflict.

Post-war East Asia is not like western Europe. No NATO or European Union binds former foes together. France’s determination to promote lasting peace by uniting under a common set of rules with Germany, its old invader, has no Asian equivalent. East Asia is therefore less stable than western Europe: a fissile mix of countries both rich and poor, democratic and authoritarian, with far less agreement on common values or even where their borders lie. Small wonder Asians are skittish when the regional giant, ruled by a single party that draws little distinction between itself and the Chinese nation, plays up themes of historical victimhood and the need to correct for it.

How much better it would be if China sought regional leadership not on the basis of the past, but on how constructive its behaviour is today. If Mr Xi were to commit China to multilateral efforts to foster regional stability, he would show that he has truly learned the lessons of history. That would be far, far better than repeating it.



10 則留言:

  1. 毛澤東去參加的開羅會議!江青跟著作陪去。羅斯福與邱吉爾各帶一位中翻英,以及英翻中的秘書去。這就是最新的開羅宣言啦。需要拜謝老季仙的慧眼,讓中華得以把歷史還原到中華夢的真相。阿們!

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  2.   中國在二戰中起的作用,羅斯福說的很清楚:「假如沒有中國,假如中國被打垮了,你想一想有多少個師團的日本兵,可以調到其他方面來作戰,他們可以馬上打下澳洲,打下印度……他們可以毫不費力地把這些地方打下來,他們並且可以一直沖向中東。」
      
      中國付出代價太大,可以說是慘勝,但慘勝也是勝,不是敗。
      

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    1. 這句話也是對俄羅斯說的。

      所以說,中國與盟國,一起打勝「太平洋戰爭」。
      中國,並沒有打贏「第二次中日戰爭」(抗戰)。

      蔣介石很厲害,選對盟國。

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    2. 俄羅斯、日本、中國國民黨、中國共產黨之間的四角關係,加上美國、英國這兩國的對日政策是否因為德國與日本的結盟而改變,台灣1950以後出生的人,很少這樣切入WWII。今年開始,被隱藏的終將顯露於世人眼前。

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    3. 依照中國歷史學家劉仲敬的說法,二戰前,中國國民黨中國共產黨在日本眼中都是蘇聯的魁儡(以現在的資料來看,這是正確的判斷),日本對中國的要求就是不要做蘇聯的魁儡。以現在的國際關係來比喻,日本像以色列,中國國民黨像黎巴嫩政府、中國共產黨像是真主黨,蘇聯則像是伊朗,現在的以色列跟日本皇軍不一樣的是沒那麼注重面子、只佔領少數區域。

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    4. hoxloflang5大也注意到「今年開始,被隱藏的終將顯露於世人眼前。」
      史觀的轉換

      其背景因素,從中國擴軍、2008、馬暴衝、太陽花、課綱等,都是。

      從昨天起,這些人還在玩一樣的把戲:民族主義。
      殊不知,其把戲的基礎已經鬆動。

      我們現在要建構更真實、更完整、更包容的歷史觀。
      總之,不是依賴「敵人的存在」而存在的高級哲學(高級哲學?這樣形容有點倉促)。

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    5. 劉仲敬在今年3月接受訪談的內容:
      http://www.bw40.net/3751.html
      蠻長的。

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  3. 中國國民黨還沒倒台,但實質轉變為中國共產黨同路人。

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  4. 在台中國人已經要與台灣人攤牌了。 就怕台年輕輩的選擇與中華民國連接一起
    ,還是還原台灣歷史的真相

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  5. 今年大轟炸70年, 炸出很多回憶
    這些回憶形成龐大的「台灣論述」
    我的朋友不多
    但就有4人出書
    太可怕

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