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2019-11-07

19860110〈美國與帛琉自由結盟協定〉(Taimocracy 部分翻譯)

【縛雞之見】
原本翻譯 freely association為「自由聯合」,於是這國家就很奇怪的成為「自由聯合國」。不對!於是改為「自由聯合邦」。
看起來很有道理,但細讀了協定中有關外交與國防的條文,才驚覺兩者關係應該是「同盟」。但是基於「自由」與「專以軍事為主」,所以不選擇「同盟」,而翻譯為「結盟」,即「自由結盟」。以上說明。

PREAMBLE
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AND THE GOVERNMENT OF PALAU
Taimocracy部分翻譯 20191105

Affirming that their Governments and the relationship between their Governments are founded upon respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all; and
申明其政府及政府間的關係,是建立在尊重所有人的人權和基本自由的基礎上;和


Affirming the common interest of the United States of America and the people of Palau in creating close and mutually beneficial relationships through a free and voluntary association of their Governments; and
重申美利堅合眾國和帛琉人民透過其政府自由和自願,建立密切互利關係的共同利益;和

Affirming the interest of the Government of the United States in promoting the economic advancement and self-sufficiency of the people of Palau; and
重申美國政府對促進帛琉人民的經濟發展和自給自足的利益

Recognizing that their previous relationship has been based upon the International Trusteeship System of the United Nations Charter; and that pursuant to Article 76 of the Charter, the people of Palau have progressively developed their institutions of self-government, and that in the exercise of their sovereign right to self-determination they have, through their freely- expressed wishes, adopted a Constitution appropriate to their particular circumstances; and
承認他們以前的關係是建立在《聯合國憲章》國際託管制度的基礎上;根據《憲章》第七十六條,帛琉人民逐步發展自治機構,在行使主權權利時,他們以自由表達的意願的方式,通過了適合他們特定情況的《憲法》;和

Recognizing their common desire to terminate the Trusteeship and establish a new government-to-government relationship in accordance with a new political status based on the freely expressed wishes of the people of Palau and appropriate to their particular circumstances; and
承認他們的共同願望,是根據帛琉人民自由表達的意願,並適合其特殊情況,符合新的政治地位終止託管,並建立新的政府與政府間關係;

Recognizing that the people of Palau have and retain their sovereignty and their sovereign right to self-determination and the inherent right to adopt and amend their own Constitution and form of government and that the approval of the entry of their Government into this Compact of Free Association by the people of Palau constitutes an exercise of their sovereign right to self-determination;
承認帛琉人民擁有並保留其主權,與其自決之主權權利,及帛琉公民行使其自決的主權權利透過和採用與修改自己的憲法和政府形式的固有權利,批准其政府加入《自由結盟協定》;

NOW, THEREFORE, AGREE to enter into a relationship of free association which provides a full measure of self-government for the people of Palau; and
現在,因此,同意建立自由結盟關係,該關係為帛琉人民提供了自治的全面措施;和

FURTHER AGREE that the relationship of free association derives from and is as set forth in this Compact; and that, during such relationships of free association, the respective rights and responsibilities of the Government of the United States and the Government of the freely associated state of Palau in regard to this relationship of free association derives from and is as set forth in this Compact.
進一步同意,自由結盟的關係源於本協定,並在本協定中規定;同時,在此自由結盟關係中,自由結盟在這種自由結盟關係方面的美國政府和帛琉自由結盟國各自的權利和責任,均源於本協定並在本協定中規定。


TITLE ONE
GOVERNMENT RELATIONS
1-1
Article I
Self-government
Section 111
The people of Palau, acting through their duly elected government established under their constitution, are self-governing.
帛琉人民,由其憲法合法選舉設立的政府所代表,是自治的。

1-2
Article II
Foreign Affairs
Section 121
(a) The Republic of Palau has the capacity to conduct foreign affairs in its own name and right, except as otherwise provided in this Compact and the Government of the United States recognizes that the Government of Palau, in the exercise of this capacity, may enter into, in its own name and right, treaties and other international agreements with governments and regional and international organizations.
除本《協定》另有規定者外,帛琉共和國有能力以自己的名義和權利從事外交事務美國政府承認帛琉政府,得以其本身的名稱和權利與地區和國際組織簽訂條約和其他國際協議行使此一能力。

(b) In the conduct of its foreign affairs the Government of Palau confirms that it shall act in accordance with principles of international law and shall settle its international disputes by peaceful means.
帛琉政府在進行外交事務時,確認其將依照國際法原則行事,並以和平手段解決其國際爭端。

Section 122
The Government of the United States shall support application by the Government of Palau for membership or other participation in regional or international organizations as may be mutually agreed. The Government of the United States agrees to accept citizens of Palau for training and instruction at the United States Foreign Service Institute, established under 22 U.S.C. 4021, or similar training under terms and conditions to be mutually agreed.
美國政府應支持帛琉政府雙方同意下,申請區域或國際組織成員資格或其他參與方式。美國政府同意接受帛琉公民在美國根據美國法典224021條設立的美國外交學院的訓練和指導,或根據雙方同意的條款和條件進行的類似培訓。

Section 123
In recognition of the authority and responsibility of the Government of the United States under Title Three, the Government of Palau shall consult with the Government of the United States. The Government of the United States, in the conduct of its foreign affairs, shall consult with the Government of Palau on matters which the Government of the United States regards as relating to or affecting the Government of Palau, and shall provide, on a regular basis, information on regional foreign policy matters.
承認美國政府在標題三(SECURITY AND DEFENSE RELATIONS)下的權力和責任,帛琉政府應與美國政府協商。美國政府在進行外交事務時,應就美國政府認為與帛琉政府有關或影響帛琉政府的事項,與帛琉政府協商,並應定期提供有關區域外交政策事項的信息。

Section 124
(a) The Government of Palau has authority to conduct its foreign affairs relating to law of the sea and marine resources matters, including the harvesting, conservation, exploration or exploitation of living and nonliving resources from the sea, seabed or subsoil to the full extent recognized under international law.
帛琉政府有權進行與海洋法和海洋資源有關的外交事務,包括在國際上公認的範圍內從海,海底或底土中採集,養護,勘探或開採生物和非生物資源法。

(b) The Government of Palau has jurisdiction and sovereignty over its territory, including its land and internal waters, territorial seas, the airspace superjacent thereto only to the extent recognized under international law.
b)在國際法所承認的範圍內,帛琉政府對其領土,包括其陸地和內水,領海,與之相鄰的領空具有管轄權和主權。

Section 125
Except as otherwise provided in this Compact or its related agreements, all obligations, responsibilities, rights and benefits of the Government of the United States as administering authority which have resulted from the application pursuant to the Trusteeship Agreement or any treaty or other international agreement to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands on the day preceding the effective date of this Compact are no longer assumed and enjoyed by the Government of the United States.
除本《協定》或其相關協定另有規定外,根據太平洋島嶼託管協定,或任何條約,或其他國際協議的適用,而作為管理當局的美國政府,不再承擔本協定生效日前太平洋島嶼的託管領土的所有義務,責任,權利和利益。

Section 126
The Government of the United States shall accept responsibility for those actions taken by the Government of Palau in area of foreign affairs, only as may from time to time be expressly and mutually agreed.
美國政府對帛琉政府外交事務,需隨時表明與相互同意所採取的行動承擔責任。

Section 127
The Government of the United States may assist or act on behalf of the Government of Palau in the area of foreign affairs as may be requested and mutually agreed from time to time. The Government of the United States shall not be responsible to third parties for the actions of the Government of Palau undertaken with the assistance or through the agency of the Government of the United States pursuant to this Section unless expressly agreed.
美國政府得隨時提出要求和相互商定,在外交事務上得協助帛琉政府或代表帛琉政府採取行動。除非明確同意,否則美國政府對帛琉政府根據本節在美國政府的協助下或通過其機構採取的行動不對第三方負責。

Section 128
At the request of the Government of Palau and subject to the consent of the receiving state, the Government of the United States shall extend consular assistance on the same basis as for citizens of the United States to citizens of Palau for travel outside of Palau, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the United States and its territories and possessions.
應帛琉政府的請求,並在接受國同意的情況下,美國政府應向在帛琉、馬紹爾群島、密克羅尼西亞聯邦、美國及其領土和屬地外的帛琉公民,擴張提供與美國公民相同基礎的領事協助。


TITLE THREE
SECURITY AND DEFENSE RELATIONS
3-1
Article I
Authority and Responsibility

Section 311
The territorial jurisdiction of the Republic of Palau shall be completely foreclosed to the military forces and personnel or for the military purposes of any nation except the United States of America, and as provided for in Section 312.
據第312條之規定,除美國以外帛琉共和國的領土管轄權,應排除任何國家的軍事力量和人員,或軍事目的之使用。

Section 312
The Government of the United States has full authority and responsibility for security and defense matters in or relating to Palau. Subject to the terms of any agreements negotiated pursuant to Article II of this Title, the Government of the United States may conduct within the lands, water and airspace of Palau the activities and operations necessary for the exercise of its authority and responsibility under this Title. The Government of the United States may invite the armed forces of other nations to use military areas and facilities in Palau in conjunction with and under the control of United States Armed Forces.
美國政府對帛琉境內或與之有關的安全和國防事務,擁有充分的權力和責任。在遵守根據本標題第二條,談判達成的任何協議條款的前提下,美國政府可在帛琉陸地,水域和領空內,開展行使本標題賦予的權力和責任所必需的活動和任務。美國政府可邀請其他國家的武裝部隊,與美國武裝部隊一起並在其控制下使用帛琉的軍事區和設施。

Section 313
The Government of Palau shall refrain from actions which the Government of the United States determines, after consultation with that Government, to be incompatible with its authority and responsibility for security and defense matters in or relating to Palau.
帛琉政府應避免採取經美國政府與該國政府協商後決定與帛琉有關或與之有關的安全和國防事務的權力和責任不相符的行動。

3-2
Article II
Defense Sites and Operating Rights

Section 321
The Government of the United States may establish and use defense sites in Palau, and may designate for this purpose land and water areas and improvements in accordance with the provisions of a separate agreement which shall come into force simultaneously with this Compact.
美國政府可在帛琉建立和使用防禦地點,並可為此目的根據與本《協定》同時生效的單獨協議的規定,指定土地和水域及改善措施。

Section 322
(a) When the Government of the United States desires to establish or use such a defense site specifically identified in the separate agreement referred to in Section 321, it shall so inform the Government of Palau which shall make the designated site available to the Government of the United States for the duration and level of use specified.
a)當美國政府希望建立或使用第321條所指單獨協議中具體指明的此種防禦地點時,應將此事通知帛琉政府,帛琉應向該國政府提供指定的防禦地點:美國規定的使用期限和使用水平。

(b) With respect to any site not specifically identified in the separate agreement referred to in Section 321, the Government of the United States shall inform the Government of Palau, which shall make the designated site available to the Government of the United States for the duration and level of use specified, or shall make available one alternative site acceptable to the Government of the United States. If such alternative site is unacceptable to the Government of the United States, the site first designated shall be made available after such determination.
b)對於在第321條所述的單獨協議中未明確指出的任何地點,美國政府應通知帛琉政府,帛琉應將該指定地點提供給美國政府使用。指定的持續時間和使用水平,或者應提供可供美國政府接受的替代地點。若美國政府不接受該替代地點,則應在作出上述決定後,提供最初指定的地點。

(c) Compensation in full for designation, establishment or use of defense sites is provided in Title Two of this Compact.
c)本協定標題二對指定,建立或使用防禦地點,應進行全額補償。

Section 323
The military operating rights of the Government of the United States and the legal status and contractual arrangements of the United States Armed Forces, their members, and associated civilians, while present in Palau, are set forth in related agreements which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact.
相關協定規定,在帛琉駐留的美國政府的軍事任務權利,以美國武裝部隊,其成員和與之相關的平民的法律地位和契約安排,這些協定應與本協定同時生效

Section 324
In the exercise in Palau of its authority and responsibility under this Title, the Government of the United States shall not use, test, store or dispose of nuclear, toxic chemical, gas or biological weapons intended for use in warfare and the Government of Palau assures the Government of the United States that in carrying out its security and defense responsibilities under this Title, the Government of the United States has the right to operate nuclear capable or nuclear propelled vessels and aircraft within the jurisdiction of Palau without either confirming or denying the presence or absence of such weapons within the jurisdiction of Palau.
在帛琉行使本標題下的權力和責任時,美國政府不得使用、測試、儲存或處置擬用於戰爭的核武,有毒化學,氣體或生物武器,並且帛琉政府保證美國政府,在履行本標題下的安全和國防職責時,美國政府有權在帛琉管轄範圍內,操作具有核能力的或有核推進器的船隻和飛機,而無需確認或否認在帛琉管轄範圍內有無此類武器。


3-4
Article III
Defense Treaties and International Security Agreements

Section 331
Subject to the terms of this Compact and its related agreements, the Government of the United States, exclusively, shall assume and enjoy, as to Palau, all obligations, responsibilities, rights and benefits of:
在遵守本《協定》及相關協議條款下,美國政府應對帛琉承擔並專有以下各項一切義務,責任,權利和利益:

(a) Any defense treaty or other international security agreement applied by the Government of the United States as administering authority of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands as of the day preceding the effective date of this Compact; and
a)截至本《協定》生效日前,作為太平洋群島託管領土管理當局的美國政府適用的任何防衛條約或其他國際安全協定;和

(b) Any defense treaty or other international security agreement to which the Government of the United States is or may become a party which it determines to be applicable in Palau. Such a determination by the Government of the United States shall be preceded by appropriate consultation with the Government of Palau.
b美國政府已簽署或可能成為一方之任何國防條約或其他國際安全協定,涉及適用至帛琉。在美國政府作出這一決定之前,應先與帛琉政府進行適當協商

3-5
Article IV
Service in the Armed Forces of the United States

Section 341
Any citizen of Palau entitled to the privileges of Section 131 of this Compact shall be eligible to volunteer for service in the Armed Forces of the United States, but shall not be subject to involuntary induction into military service of the United States so long as such person does not establish habitual residence in the United States, its territories or possessions.
符合本協定第131條的帛琉公民都有資格自願在美國武裝部隊中服役,但只要該人未在美國,其領土或屬地擁有住所,就不受自願進入美國服兵役之限制。

Section 342
The Government of the United States shall have enrolled, at any one time, at least one qualified student from Palau as may be nominated by the Government of Palau, in each of:
美國政府應隨時招收,帛琉政府提名至少一名帛琉合格學生,至以下各學院:

(a) The United States Coast Guard Academy pursuant to 14 U.S.C. 195; and (b) The United States Merchant Marine Academy pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 1295(b)(6), provided that the provisions of 46 U.S.C. 1295(b)(6)(c) shall not apply to the enrollment of students pursuant to Section 342(b) of this Compact. 3-6 Article V General Provisions Section 351 (a) The Government of the United States and the Government of Palau shall establish a joint committee empowered to consider disputes which may arise under the implementation of this Title and its related agreements.
a 根據《美國法典》14 U.S.C. 195的美國海岸防衛隊學院b)根據《美國法典》46 U.S.C. 1295b)(6),的美國商船學院。1295b)(6)(c)不適用於根據本協定第342b)條招收的學生。 3-6第五條總則第351條(a根據第346節(b)美國國政府和帛琉政府應建立一個,有權審議在執行本標題及其有關協定時,可能引起的爭端之「聯合委員會」。

(b) The membership of the joint committee shall comprise selected senior officials of each of the participating Governments. The senior United States military commander in the Pacific area shall be the senior United States member of the joint committee. For the meetings of the joint committee, each of the Governments may designate additional or alternate representatives as appropriate for the subject matter under consideration.
b)聯合委員會的成員應包括各參加國政府選定的資深官員。美國駐太平洋地區的高級軍事指揮官,應為聯合委員會的美國高級成員。在聯合委員會會議上,各國政府可根據所審議主題,酌情指定其他代表或候補代表。

(c) Unless otherwise mutually agreed, the joint committee shall meet semi-annually at a time and place to be designated, after appropriate consultation, by the Government of the United States. The joint committee also shall meet promptly upon request of either of its members. Upon notification by the Government of the United States, the joint committee shall meet promptly in combined session with other such joint committees so notified. The joint committee shall follow such procedures, including the establishment of functional subcommittees, as the members may from time to time agree.
c)除非雙方另有協議,否則聯合委員會應在適當協商後,由美國政府指定的時間和地點每半年舉行一次會議。聯合委員會得應任一成員要求迅速開會。一經美國政府通知,聯合委員會應立即與經通知的其他此類聯合委員會舉行聯合會議。聯合委員會應遵循成員不時同意的程序,包括設立職能小組委員會。

(d) Unresolved issues in the joint committee shall be referred to the Government of the United States and the Government of Palau for resolution, and the Government of Pilau shall be afforded, on an expeditious basis, an opportunity to raise its concerns with the United States Secretary of Defense personally regarding any unresolved issue which threatens its continued association with the Government of the United States.
d)聯合委員會中未能解決的問題,應轉交美國政府和帛琉政府解決,帛琉政府應盡快獲得向美聯儲提出關切的機會。美國國防部長親自處理任何可能威脅其繼續與美國政府聯繫的未解決問題。

Section 352
In the exercise of its authority and responsibility under this Compact, the Government of the United States shall accord due respect to the authority and responsibility of the Government of Palau under this Compact and to the responsibility of the Government of Palau to assure the well-being of Palau and its people. The Government of the United States and the Government of Palau agree that the authority and responsibility of the United States set forth in this Title are exercised for the mutual security and benefit of Palau and the United States, and that any attack on Palau would constitute a threat to the peace and security of the entire region and a danger to the United States. In the event of such an attack, or threat thereof, the Government of the United States would take action to meet the danger to the United States and Palau in accordance with its constitutional processes.
美國政府在行使本《協定》規定的權力和責任時,應適當尊重本《協定》所規定的帛琉政府的權力和責任,以及帛琉政府確保帛琉及其人民福祉的責任。美國政府和帛琉政府同意,美國行使本標題中規定的權力和責任是為帛琉和美國的共同安全和利益,對帛琉的任何攻擊,都將構成對整個地區的和平與安全,對美國產生危險。若發生此種攻擊或威脅,美國政府將根據其憲法程序採取行動,以支應對美國和帛琉的危險。

Section 353
(a) The Government of the United States shall not include the Government of Palau as a named party to a formal declaration of war, without the consent of the Government of Palau.
a)未經帛琉政府同意,美國政府不得將帛琉政府明訂為正式宣戰的一方。

(b) Absent such consent, this Compact is without prejudice, on the ground of belligerence or the existence of a state of war, to any claims for damages which are advanced by the citizens, nationals or Government of Palau which arise out of armed conflict subsequent to the effective date of this Compact and which are:
b)如果無此種同意,本協定不因交戰或存在戰爭狀態而對由武裝衝突引起的帛琉公民,國民或政府提出的任何損害要求索賠 在本協定生效之日之後:

(1) petitions to the Government of the United States for redress; 向美國政府提出的請願書;
(2) claims in any manner against the government, citizens, nationals or entities of any third country. 以任何方式向任何第三國的政府,公民,國民或實體提出索賠。

(c) Petitions under Section 353(b)(1) shall be treated as if they were made by citizens of the United States.
c)根據第353b)(1)節提出的請願,應視為由美國公民提出。

https://pw.usembassy.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/282/2017/05/rop_cofa.pdf

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