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2017-02-15

The Logan Act 第953條:私與外國通訊罪

The Logan Act
Flynn是中到這一條,看清楚:1799年生效

很可惜,新聞報導都沒提及這點!!
這是1799年的法律呢,距今快220年。

可見,美國政治文化,看中的是規矩。
未上任,就是不可以!

中華台北的《刑法》第113條是「私與外國訂約罪」:應經政府允許之事項,未受允許,私與外國政府或其派遣之人為約定者,處無期徒刑或七年以上有期徒刑。很寬鬆的!
立委們,努力一下吧!

The Logan Act (1 Stat. 613, 18 U.S.C. § 953, enacted January 30, 1799) is a United States federal law that details the fine and/or imprisonment of unauthorized citizens who negotiate with foreign governments having a dispute with the United States.

It was intended to prevent the undermining of the government's position.

The Act was passed following George Logan's unauthorized negotiations with France in 1798, and was signed into law by President John Adams on January 30, 1799.

The Act was last amended in 1994, and violation of the Logan Act is a felony.

§ 953. Private correspondence with foreign governments.
Any citizen of the United States, wherever he may be, who, without authority of the United States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any correspondence or intercourse with any foreign government or any officer or agent thereof, with intent to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government or of any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or controversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.

This section shall not abridge the right of a citizen to apply himself, or his agent, to any foreign government, or the agents thereof, for redress of any injury which he may have sustained from such government or any of its agents or subjects.

953條:私與外國通訊罪
任何美國公民,無論身在何處,在未經美國政府授權下,直接或間接開始或與任何外國政府或任何外國政府或其任何官員或代理人開展或進行任何信函或往來,意圖影響措施或任何外國政府或其任何官員或代理人對與美國的任何爭端或爭議的行為,或減損美國的措施,應依據本條論處罰款(及/或)三年以下有期徒刑
本條不得剝奪公民自己或其代理人,向任何外國政府或其代理人申請補償他從該政府或其任何代理人或主體受到的任何傷害的權利。

"The President alone has the power to speak or listen as a representative of the nation. He makes treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate; but he alone negotiates. Into the field of negotiation the Senate cannot intrude; and Congress itself is powerless to invade it.  As Marshall said in his great argument of March 7, 1800, in the House of Representatives, 'The President is the sole organ of the nation in its external relations, and its sole representative with foreign nations.'

“作為國家的代表,總統(對外交)擁有專屬權力發言或聽取。他雖在參議院的建議和同意下制定條約;但獨自談判。參議院不能侵入,談判領域,國會本身是無能為力的。正如馬歇爾在180037日的眾議院眾議院中所說,“總統是國家在其對外關係中的唯一機構,它是外國的唯一代表


5 則留言:

  1. Flynn的案子是在未上任之前與俄國使館進行接觸,但Logan Act有兩個重點
    1. 外交及談判是總統專責,屬於行政權,非國會可干涉。
    2. 違反Logan Act的前提條件是 without authorization of the US government.
    看起來,Flynn是否上任並不重要,重要的是Flynn有無被授權? 如果Flynn有Trump的授權, 那麼Flynn也沒有違反Logan Act的問題。

    俄國自二戰之後就是美國的大敵,直到現在大部分的媒體、學界、官員仍是將俄國視為頭號敵人。因此,Flynn與俄國使館接觸是范瞭政治不正確的大忌,但是俄國是否仍是美國的頭號敵人?至少未來20年,看起來根本不是。

    美國那批自由派的媒體與學者,腦袋真的已經僵化到愚蠢的地步了。

    再者,美俄合起來對付中國對台灣是有利的,因此反對如此做的,都是我們的敵人,應予在任何場域予以打擊。

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    1. Trump在去年12月,也還只是平民。
      如何授權?

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    2. 有哪一個國家和普丁的蘇俄合作,成功完成了什麼?

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    3. 用詞要準確,思考就比較容易準確

      蘇俄、蘇聯、俄羅斯
      各有不同指涉

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    4. Vietnam successfully built up its naval and airpower. Most procurements are done during Putin's terms. Syria keeps its regime through Putin's intervention. Serbia retained influence on Kosovo, including protecting Serbian residents, after its defeated in 1999 through Russian intervention.

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